Most Important Data About Human Papillomavirus
Let’s start with the definition. HPV – is a disease caused by human papillomaviruses. There are about 80 different types of viruses, but they all have something in common – they affect primarily the skin and mucous membranes, causing tissue proliferation.
If the virus of the papilloma enters the skin – a wart develops, and if it affects mucous membrane, for example, the penis, vagina, cervix or anus – papillomas are called genital warts.
How HPV Is Transmitted?
As we’re talking about STDs – let’s first say that HPV can be transmitted though sexual intercorce. Also it can be transmitted from mother to a child during the childbirth.
How it Could Be Diagnosed and What Problems Can Intervene?
Symptoms of papillomavirus, except for tissue growth, are usually absent, but may be accompanied by pricking and itching.
HPV diagnosis does not cause any specialties – condyloma is easily detected during routine dermatovenerologist examinations. This virus can be detected during examination of the vulva and cervix. Doctor takes smears for carrying out the HPV test which allows to evaluate the cells covering it.
The only problem with diagnosing HPV is related to its incubation period as HPV symptoms might not be seen within several months after you’ve been infected.
HPV is more dangerous for women than for men, for the first that could be a sign of cancer and as for the second – HPV doesn’t cause significant health problems.
What Kind of Treatment Exist For HPV?
If we’re talking about men who are infected – no special treatment is required.
If it is about women – all depends on the type. If it is not associated with cancer, you can remove visible warts with the help of cryotherapy, electrocautery, surgical removal or special laser surgery.
On the contrary – infected woman will need thorough monitoring. It is extremely important to keep control under infection as it’s treatment on early stages would be easier. Sometimes doctors advise ”cure” affected cells by making cryotherapy, colposcopy or LEEP.
What do You Know About HPV Vaccination?
Currently, there are two kinds of vaccine that protect women against HPV 16 and 18. This is very important as these two types cause at least 70% of all cervical cancers in the world. These vaccines can also provide some cross-protection from less common types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
In the US, vaccination is carried out among all girls aged 11-12 years. World experience in HPV vaccination proved its safety and high preventive efficacy.
Vaccination process is done in three stages. Traditional interval between the first and second is two months, between the second and third – four months, sometimes there are exceptions.
At the onset of pregnancy, the third dose of the vaccine is transferred to the postpartum period. If all three vaccinations were carried out for 12 months, the vaccination is successful and complete.
During the pregnancy third dose is transferred to the postpartum period.
As for the possible side-effects in the first 2-3 days after vaccination following reactions can show off: soreness at the injection site, swelling, redness, pruritus, and general reactions – malaise, fever.
Vaccines against HPV are contraindicated if: person is allergic to any component of the vaccine, had severe allergic reactions to the previous administration of this drug, pregnancy. Temporary contraindications for vaccination are acute diseases and exacerbations of chronic diseases. In such cases vaccination is delayed until recovery.
How Can You Prevent HPV Besides Vaccination?
Up to 82% of women are infected with HPV 2 years after they became sexual activ. Even with one partner 20% of women are infected with the virus. After sexual life had begun, each woman should undergo annual gynecological examinations, including swabs for onco cytology and HPV tests.
FAQ About Human Papillomavirus
Question: Is HPV curable?
Answer: There is no way to get rid of it completely, but with the help of specialists you can delete visible already-existing warts and keep under control new warts appearance.
Question: Is HPV a STD?
Answer: It can be transmitted by skin-to-skin contact even without sexual intercourse, but in most cases it is transmitted right after sexual contact. So, yes, it is an STD.
Question: What are the possible effects of HPV?
Answer: The main danger is cancer. Most cases end-up without any complications, but you should be very careful with that. Special attention during the pregnancy period is important as this virus is transmitted through mother to baby.
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